what is reflection?
1)reflective awareness and abilities.
reflective thought(Dewey, 1933)
the roduct of reflective thinking;
a process of expanding and deepening the range of the questions a teacher asks about teaching practice through adopting an organiized and systematic approach, and collaborating with other teacher colleagues have the same questions.
外语教学反思reflective -language teaching (Farrel,2007)：自下而上，有意识的，基于证据、数据的data/evedence-based
Dewey, 1933 defined reflective thought as an action based on active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge and the further conclusions to which it tends;rational scientifically approved;
Schon(1983) The Reflective Practioner；
reflection-in-action: the making od decisions guided by tacit knowledge that occurs in the midst of acting课堂教学机制当下的，课堂上的
reflection-on -action:thinking back,retrospective， past
Van Manen(1991)reflection-for-action: before the class预设反思，备课时，对学生及教学情况的反思
1）identify strengths and weakness;
2）evulate the strategies or techniques utilized in classrooms
3）enhance teaching practiceby overcoming anticipated problems
Michael J. Wallace (1991)
the craft model师徒制模式
the applied science model应用科学模式
the reflective model 反思式模式
metaphor of reflection as a compass指南针
stop, look, discover where they are at the moment, and then decide where to go
pre-service teacher, in-service teachers; novice teachers; collaborative reflective practice; reflective teaching in ELT（example）; etc
记反思日志keeping reflective journals
encounter challenges with regard to what, when, how to reflect;
why should we reflect?
reflection serves as
a powerful impetus and desired outcomes of teaching learning;
a core activity for all teachers
through critical reflection, teachers can examing their past experience, and enhance
raise questions about the lg teaching cliches and routines, and promote more informed teaching.
develop a deep understanding of teaching
aviod replicating ineffective teaching strategies
to students: understand themselves
how to reflect?
the ultimate goal, the content, process, tool/approaches, levels/stages
goal: producting action for enhanced students learning, better education, and a more just society for all students
content；establshed assumptions of oneself ,schools and universities, and the society about teaching and learning, and the social and political implications etc.
process: constant analyzing, questioning and critiquing the established assumptions, implementing changes to previous actions.
conducting small classroom research; attending conferences; reading revelant journal papers and books; teaching journals/ diaries;electronic portfolios电子档案夹；discussion groups( teaching groups or post observation conferences); critical colleagues; collecting information about students and receiving feedback from students;self and peer class observation;careful examination of lesson plans, and classroom video analysis (Farell 2008
3 stages/levels:technical--situational and institutional /practical---moral and ethical/critical reflection
3,levels of reflection提升反思层次
5，observe each others class