教师反思:是什么?为什么?怎么做?

教师反思:是什么?为什么?怎么做?
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The Reflective Practioner

refection-in-action

refection-on-action

reflection-for-action

国内研究:以量化取向的问卷调查

国外研究:质性研究货混合研究

Reflection serve as a core activity 

 

 

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写反思的模式

  1. 收获-问题-建议
  2. 收获困惑-如何探索困惑
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1.Farrell 2013

老师要有反思的能力和意识

2. Harford, Mac Ruairc, Mc Cartan 2010

what, when and how to reflect

Begriff

reflecktive thought Dewey 1933 杜威 美教育家

反思性实践reflective practice/reflection

反思性教学 reflective teaching

Kumaravadivelu, 1994 反思性教学是反思后的结果

Robertson Yiamouyiannis 1996 系统性有组织的反思

Farrell 2007 反思性外语教学

自下而上的教师专业发展过程

 在此过程中,教师有意识的、系统的、基于证据的思考教学 

Dewey 1933 P.9 定义

reflective thought as action based on the active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed  form of knowledge 

Akbari 2007

believed that reflection is a practice by means of which one can replace personal, impulsive actions with rational, scientifically approved alternatives.理智的科学的反思

Schön 1983进行了分类

The reflective practioner: hao professionas think in action

reflection in action:发生在行动当中的,在教学过程中遇到突发情况,

reflection on action: thinking back,回顾性反思

Van Man恩1991

reflection for action: reflction befor action,上课前的反思,

优点:识别优势和弱势;教师可以评估自己的方法是否适合;提高教师的教学实践

Michael J. Wallace 1991 外语教师教育的三个模式

the craft model: 类似师徒制

the applied science model :科学实践模式

the reflective model:反思模式 

Thomas S.C. Farrel 2012

reflection as a compass 反思像指南针

reflective practice" enables teachers to stop, look, and discover where the are at that moment and then decide where they want to go (professionally) in the future. P.7

外语教师反思文献综述

国内研究

外语教师领域,本世纪初开始关注教师反思:

经验引介和理论思辨文章(甘正东 2000;高翔、王蔷)

针对高校外语教师这个群体的实证研究论文逐渐涌现:

反思现状调查(如 Xu, Li&Curtis, 2015;孟春国,2011;徐锦芬、李斑斑,2012;颜奕、罗少茜,2014)

反思量表建构(李斑斑、徐锦芬 2011; Xu, Li& Curtis, 2015)

反思工具的作用(程文华, 2010)

研究方法:以量化取向的问卷调查为主

研究存在的问题:调查结果体现的多是教师的宣称理念和实践,而无法反应具体教学情境中教师真实的反思现状。

现有研究还缺乏对高校外语教师反思深入、细致、多维的考察。

国外研究

质性研究为主,或混合研究

四个研究例子

在职

新手

教学质量

为什么反思

Walkington, 2005, P59

a core activity for all teachers

Fendler 2003 understand tehmselves

Phan 2009 think and solve educational problems

如何反思

the goal

the content

the process

the tools/

the levels/stages

 

 

 

 

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Michael J. Wallace 1991

languge teacher education setting

 

Thomas SC

 

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1. What to reflect?

reflective thought

reflective practice/reflection

reflective teaching

2. When to reflect?

1). reflection on action:  thinking back, retrospective

2). reflection in action: in the midst of acting

how to make immediate decision

3). reflection for action:

3. How to reflect?

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教师应该培养反思意识和反思能力;

但遭遇挑战

老师们不知道what, when and how to reflect;

what:什么是反思?

when:什么时候去反思,

how如何去反思

具备反思意识,要有反思能力;

reflective teaching反思性教学:是反思之后产生的教学过程;加深教师对教学过程中一些问题的探索和理解。自下而上的教师专业发展过程

主动的,持续的,严谨的

类型:

课中反思:对当下教学中出现的突发情况和问题反快速作出反应和行动

课后反思:对过去情况的反思

预期性反思:上课前的反思,如备课中准备教案或ppt时思考教案是否适合教学对象,可能的教学效果等。通过这种反思,教师可以知道该教学设计的优点,教学难点要点,教学方法是否适合自己的学生。

 

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Dewey,1933, reflective thought, active persistent and careful 

evidence based

reflective practice/reflection

reflective teaching: product of reflective thinking

reflective language teaching :bottom up

evidence-based 

Shon 1983  reflection in action

                   reflection on action

 

Van Manen 1991  reflection for action

Michael J. Wallace 1991 3models

 Thomas S.C. Farrell 2012

reflection as compass

What  to reflect

content

process

How to reflect: 10 tools

electonic portfolios

discussion groups

critical colleagues

collecting and receiving

self and peer classroom observation

careful examination 

action research

attending conferences

reading journals

writing teaching diaries

stages/levels  of reflection

technical (无教师参与)

situational and institutional (参与)

moral and ethical (探讨教育的本质)

dispositions

evidence-based

levels of reflection

models for reflection: GPS TPE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1.“你这节课上的怎么样?”

“我觉得上课不太满意“

这里的“觉得”是很主观的东西。

反思必须是基于证据的,好或不好必须有证据来证明,在此基础上改进自己的教学,更新自己的教学理念。

2.什么时候反思?

Schon(1983)认为:

reflection-on-action:下课后,反思之前的教学经历。

reflection-in-action:反思发生在教学过程中。尤其是在教堂中发生的突发情况,如何应对这种情况。如何快速反思,如何快速做出反应。尤其是对超出预设的情况,不在备课内容上,在行动上有所体现。

3.反思性教学的作用

可以提升教学质量;对自己惯常使用的方法进行质疑和改进;规避重复无效得教学策略,改进实践;优秀的教师即使常年教一门课程,每年也会重新备课,是在原有教学实践基础上的改进,这种改进就是 一种反思。

4.反思途径

进行行动研究(具体如何操作?);参加学术会议;阅读相关论文和专著;记录教学日志,这也是重要的数据来源;建立电子档案;讨论小组,请同事观摩;批判性同事;收集关于学生的信息,收集学生的反馈;对自己的课进行录像或录音;对自己备的课进行基于数据的分析。

 

 

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分了很多次才听完,每次都等孩子睡着了才能有点时间学习。

一边听课一边用思维导图整理笔记

听得非常认真,给自己加加油!

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what is reflection?

1)reflective awareness and abilities.

reflective thought(Dewey, 1933)

2)reflective practice/reflection

3)reflective teaching

the roduct of reflective thinking;

a process of expanding and deepening the range of the questions a teacher asks about teaching practice through adopting an organiized and systematic approach, and collaborating with other teacher colleagues have the same questions.

外语教学反思reflective -language teaching (Farrel,2007):自下而上,有意识的,基于证据、数据的data/evedence-based

孔子“学而不思则罔”“见贤思齐焉”

Dewey, 1933 defined reflective thought as an action based on active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge and the further conclusions to which it tends;rational scientifically approved;

Schon(1983) The Reflective Practioner;

reflection-in-action: the making od decisions guided by tacit knowledge that occurs  in the midst of acting课堂教学机制当下的,课堂上的

reflection-on -action:thinking back,retrospective, past

Van Manen(1991)reflection-for-action: before the class预设反思,备课时,对学生及教学情况的反思

反思的好处:

1)identify strengths and weakness;

2)evulate the strategies or techniques utilized in classrooms

3)enhance teaching practiceby overcoming anticipated problems

Michael J. Wallace (1991)

the craft model师徒制模式

the applied science model应用科学模式

the reflective model 反思式模式

ThomasS.C.Farrell(2012)

metaphor of reflection as a compass指南针

stop, look, discover where they are at the moment, and then decide where to go 

国内研究:反思现状调查

反思量化表,问卷调查

宣称理念和实践,缺乏深入,细致、多维的考查

国外研究:mixed混合研究,质性研究

pre-service teacher, in-service teachers; novice teachers; collaborative  reflective practice; reflective teaching in ELT(example); etc

记反思日志keeping reflective journals

 

encounter challenges  with regard to what, when, how to reflect;

why should we reflect?

to teachers:

reflection serves as 

a powerful impetus and desired outcomes of teaching learning;

a core activity for all teachers 

through critical reflection, teachers can examing their past experience, and enhance 

raise questions about the lg teaching cliches and routines, and promote more informed teaching.

develop a deep understanding of teaching

aviod replicating ineffective teaching strategies

to students: understand themselves

think, solve 

how to reflect?

the ultimate goal, the content, process, tool/approaches, levels/stages

 goal: producting action for enhanced students learning, better education, and a more just society for all students

content;establshed assumptions of oneself ,schools and universities, and the society about teaching and learning, and the social and political implications etc.

process: constant analyzing, questioning and critiquing the established assumptions, implementing changes to previous actions.

tools:10

conducting small classroom research; attending conferences; reading revelant journal papers and books; teaching journals/ diaries;electronic portfolios电子档案夹;discussion groups( teaching groups or post observation conferences); critical colleagues; collecting information about students and receiving feedback from students;self and peer class observation;careful examination of lesson plans, and classroom video analysis (Farell 2008

3 stages/levels:technical--situational and institutional /practical---moral and ethical/critical reflection

教育的本质:立德树人

反思案例

行动和反思

对行动的反思将 促成对新的意义的建构

存在的问题及建议

停留在经验层面,课堂与学生层面,被动地应对问题,写反思日志最少

advice

1.dispositions 

2,data-based

3,levels of reflection提升反思层次

4.团队mentor-mentee connections

5,observe each others class

6.教师经常参与课程学习与研修

7.收集学生的反馈

GPS(gains-problems-suggestions)

TPE(think-puzzle-explore)

 

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1引言 What is reflective awareness and ability from Thomas S.C. 
Farrell

2 什么是反思 概念界定 

3 reflection  文献梳理概念 from Dewey 1933 reflective thought thought/practice=reflection/teaching

reflective teaching is the product of reflective thinking 反思性教学 from Kumaravadivelu 1994

是一种过程性的思考  自下而上的思考

有意识的  系统地  基于证据evidence-based 利用数据

梳理经典文献

confucious 孔子  

Dewey 1933  的书《how do we thought》

defined "reflective thought" as action based on the "active, persistent and careful consideration "

Akbari, 2007 replace personal impulsive action with  rational, scientifically approved alternatives

Donald Schon 1983 a book named

The Reflective practioner: How professionls think in Action (2 types of reflection  on action)

reflection in action  教学活动之中

reflection for action  之前

 reflection on action 之后

MichaelJ.Wallace 1991: 3 models

craft/the applied science/the reflective model

Thomas S.C. Farrell  reflection as a compass

国内研究  外语教师教育领域  本世纪初

反思现状   构建量表    工具    量化研究为主

国外研究   质性研究为主

4 为什么反思 enables   to

5  如何反思

the ultimate goal 

the content

the process(analyzing, questioning, critiquing, implementing changes)

the tools/approaches (10)

1)conducting small scale classroom research e.g. action research 行动研究

2)attending conferences 学术会议

3)reading relevant journals papers and books 读期刊专著

4)teaching journals /diaries 记录教学日志

5) elctronic portfolios 电子档案夹

 6) discussion groups 小组讨论

7) critical colleagues 找批判性同事

 8) collecting information about students and receiving feedback form students

9) self and peer classroom observation 听自己的录音或视频

10)careful examination of lesson plans and classroom viedeo analysis 

 

the levels /stages 反思的层次  基于3个文献

technical rationality   技术层面的 

situational and institutionals  情景层面和制度层面

moral and ethical reflection  道德和伦理的层面

(为什么外语教学中的语言能力  思辨能力  跨文化能力   背后的理念  教育培养什么样的人 立德树人   人文教育)

案例分析: lesson one   Salvation 

总结: 反思和行动 

6 高校外语教师反思存在的问题和建议

1)对反思教学的理解  停留在经验的层面

2)反思的内容

3)反思的层次

4)反思的过程

5) 反思的方式  

7 对老师的建议

1) dispositions  品质 openminded responsibility  whole-hearted

2) evidence-based/data-based 

3) levles of reflection 

4) friendly relationship

5) observe each other's classes regular

6) conference 

7) collect students' feedback 

8) adminstrators help the teachers

8 对研修班的老师的建议   GPS TPE

GPS  gains   problems  suggestions

TPE  think   puzzle   explore 

 

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需要反思,反思有用,反思形式多样。有反思意识,则会有更积极有效的反思。what,when and how to reflect

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reflective thought(Dewey, 1933)/practice/teaching

relfective language teaching (Farrol)

consciously, systematicly, evidence-based thinking 

reflective thought(Dewey, 1933):  action based on the active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or...

Schon (1983): reflective practioner

two types: reflection-in-action: thinking in the midst of acting

reflection-on-action: thinking back/retrospective

refection for action(Van Manen 1991d): reflection before action or anticipative action

identify their strengths and weaknesses

evaluate the strategies or techniques

enhance their teaching effection

Michael J. Wallace(1991) made reflective teaching popular in the teaching teacher education setting.

the craft model

the applied science model

the reflective model

Thomas S.C.Farrel (2012)

metaphor of reflection as a compass

reflective practice enable teachers to stop, look and discover where they are at the moment and then decide where they want to go in the future(p. 7)

国内:量化

国外:质性或混合

 

为什么反思:更好理解教学、提升教学质量 、可持续性职业发展

 

如何

small classroom research

conferences

teaching journalrnal papers

reading relevant jou

electronic portfolios

discussion groups

collecting information about students

self-and peer classroom observation

careful examination of lesson plans and classroom video

critical colleagues

f反思步骤、阶段

technical rationality: 教育知识、方法、课程原则,技术运用效果

situational and institutional (practical action): 教师参与,对教学行为、后果进行评估;学生和教师行为进行分析,关注教学环境对教学的意义;

moral and ethical;critical reflection:教育意义、伦理、人文等

对行为的反思将促成对新的意义的建构。

高校外语教师反思的问题:

对反思的理解:仅仅是经验总结

反思内容:限于课堂教学与学生学习,缺乏对自身专业发展和教育环境的反思

反思的层次:以实践为主,技术性反思占了一定的比例,但批评性反思有较大提升空

 

反思过程:被动应对问题,缺少问题意识;

反思方式:和同事谈论,读文献

建议:open-mindedness, responsibility, whole-heartedness

evidence-based/date-based

levels of reflection: technical-pratical-critical

oberve each other's classes

attend professional courses

collect the students reflections

反思模式:Gains, Problems, Suggestions(GPS)

think-puzzle-explore(TPE)

 

 

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1.reflection-in-action: in the midst of acting,

reflection-on -action: thinking back, retrospective in nature   (schon,1983)

reflection-for-action: prediction (Van Manen,1991)

2. reflective teaching in ELT 的例子很有启发性

 

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reflective language teaching

自下而上教师专业发展过程

有意识 系统systematic 基于证据地思考教学evidence-based/data-based

 

Dewey(1933) reflective thought-- action 

active persistent careful

Schon(1983)

2 types of reflection:

reflection-in-action 过程中

reflection-on-action 教学后

past and present exigencies

 

Van Manen(1991) reflection-for-action:

before action or anticipatory reflection

 

Michael Wallace(1991)

Thomas Farrell(2012) compass:

enables teachers to stop,look and discover where they are ... and decide where they want to go

 

  

 

 

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反思 /reflection是?

Dewey, 1933 reflective thought 

reflective practice/ reflection

reflection teaching

反思不等于思考?

what,when,how to reflect?

 

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现状调查(Xu, Li & Curits 孟春国 徐锦芬 李斑斑 颜奕 罗少茜)

量表构建(李斑斑 徐锦芬)

反思工具(程文华)

国内量化为主

国外质性为主

pre-service

in-service

novice

 

keep reflective journals

 

如何反思:

The goal of reflection:enhanced student learning, better education, a more just society

The content of reflection: oneself schools and universities the society

The processes of reflection: constant analyzing, questioning, critiquing, implementing changes

Tools/Approaches of reflections

     1.small scale classroom research

     2.attending conferences

     3.reading relevant journal papers and books

     4.teaching journals/diaries

     5.electronic portfolios

     6.discuss groups

     7.critical colleagues

     8.collecting information about students and  receiving feedback from students

     9.self and peer classroom observation

     10.careful examination

 

stages/levels

     technical(technical rationality):教育知识、教学方法、课程原则、技术等运用效果

     situational and institutional (practical action):教师参与(教育后果、师生行为、教学情境意义)

     moral and ethical(critical reflection):学校功能、教育意义(本质)、教师作用、师生全面发展

     

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引言:Reflective awareness 

        What  When  and how to reflect 

概念:reflective thought (Dewey) 

         reflective practice/reflection 

         reflective teaching  反思性教学

      - the product of reflctive thinking 

      - 有组织的、系统性的、与同事交流

         reflective language teaching  

混合, 交叉使用

Reflection in action:发生在行动之中。(之中的)

Reflection on action:  关于行为的反思,是教学后的反思。(之后的)

Reflection for action: 为了行动的反思(预期的, 之前的)

stop ,look and discover---compass

 

为什么反思:对学生、对教师 是重要的。

                  解决实践问题。

 

如何反思: 目标:对行动产生影响

                内容:自我反思、学校院校、教育环    境、师生关系。

                 过程:经常性的、改进不知足

                 工具、途径:行动研究;学术会议;期刊论文、文献;建立教学日志;电子档案夹;讨论:批判性同事;学生反馈;

 

                 层次、阶段:技术理性(低级)

                                    情境性、制度性(教师的参与)

                                    批判性(伦理、道德)

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